IDIOMS IN DISCOURSE


  • G. Dzhindzholia University of West Bohemia, Pilsen, Czech Republic
Keywords: idiom, phraseological system of the Russian language, semantic field, synonym, antonym, mass media, modern media text, discourse.

Abstract

The article describes the discursive behavior of idioms in modern mass media.

The purpose of the article is to study the ways of introducing idioms into modern media texts and how to adapt them to the phraseological system of the Russian language.

Research material - more than 300 idioms selected from the national corps of the Russian language. The object of the study was modern media texts. The subject of analysis is the lexical and semantic transformations of idioms, their discursive behavior.

The lexical, grammatical, semantic transformation of idioms takes place in the media text. The transformation of an idiom can lead to a revision of the meaning: toss with slippers - “criticize” (cf. toss with caps - “boastful promise to achieve victory easily and quickly”); persuade to cohabitation (cf. persuade to cohabitation; clone) is the author's idiom of the poet Vladimir Vishnevsky.

The phraseological system of the Russian language is constantly replenished with new units, which are formed on the basis of free combinations and previously known idioms. Borrowing from other languages and author idioms are active.

The process of moving social dialects to the center of the language system continues, noted by researchers. Argot and slang idioms, idioms from the speech of officials, representatives of show business, etc. are being introduced into the mass consciousness.

In the media text, these units are tested, linguistic crystallization of meanings.

A new idiom enters into systemic semantic relations with already known phraseological units and thereby adapts to the phraseological system of the language. This may be the relationship of the semantic field, synonymy, antonymy, part and the whole, cause and effect, phase state, process, etc.

The short-term or long-term fate of new idioms is determined by sociocultural, pragmatic, cognitive and other factors. A significant factor is the degree of attachment to discourse. Idioms that do not have a discursive attraction are doomed to oblivion. The more often they manifest themselves discursively, the more likely they are to gain a foothold in the language system. Important conditions for their language adaptation are systemic semantic relations with already known idioms. This can be the relations of the semantic field, synonymy, antonymy, part and the whole, cause and effect, etc. Due to new idioms such semantic fields are updated as conflict, hypocrisy, laughter, wealth, etc.

According to the semantics and functions in the structure of the discourse, two groups of new idioms can be distinguished. The first group includes expressive idioms, the use of which allows the speaker to express his attitude to certain realities and aspects of the situation: “VKontakte” with his head - “complete immersion of children in virtual communication”; throw in slippers - “criticize”, etc. Another group of neo-phraseologisms includes units that call previously unremarked phenomena: (not) feed the troll - “in case of constant threats on the Web, change the email address, close your page”; to give Elton John - “about stellar behavior; behave like a star ”; generation-700 euros - “a category of people in developed countries that cannot count on a salary of more than 700 euros per month” is used as a synonym for the expression lost generation, etc.

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Published
2020-02-09
How to Cite
Dzhindzholia, G. (2020). IDIOMS IN DISCOURSE. Linguistics. Lingvoculturology, (15), 112-129. Retrieved from https://lingvodnu.com/index.php/journal/article/view/205